Papillomavirus or HPV is a micro-organism that has dozens of subspecies. There will be certain changes in the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs, depending on the type of virus a person has.
HPVs associated with carcinogenic subspecies are particularly dangerous, that is, they increase the risk of developing malignancies. Timely diagnosis of papilloma helps to determine the strain of papillomavirus and therefore receive antiviral therapy, which is also an anti-cancer agent.
Causes of HPV
The human papillomavirus is one of the most widespread viruses in the world.
It is estimated that one or more strains of this micro-organism are found in almost 90% of the population. Such a widespread distribution of HPV is due to its ease of transmission.
The virus is transmitted only from person to person, but in several ways. The basics are sexual and it can be either a traditional sexual contact or a mouth or anus. HPV can be transmitted from mother to mother during childbirth and often after a while papillomas are diagnosed in the baby's mouth and throat.
Papillomavirus is often transmitted by contact, either through damaged skin or when different people use certain personal items. The micro-organism perfectly retains its viability in humid and hot environments, so it is easy to become its owner after taking a bath or swimming pool.
Some sexual characteristics increase the risk of infection. This is an early onset, frequent marriages, sexually transmitted diseases, abortions in women. In most cases, women are sexually infected with HPV, which doctors associate with the anatomical features of their genital structure.
The papilloma virus does not always appear immediately, in most cases it takes several months and years before it appears on the skin and mucous membranes.
Several provocative factors are to blame for the activation of pathogens, a group of which includes:
- Prominent weakness of the immune system. This occurs after severe infectious diseases, after long-term treatment with antibiotics, with frequent respiratory diseases.
- Negative effects of chronic and frequent mental and emotional stress.
- Presence of chronic diseases of the genitals, urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract.
- Bad habits - long-term smoking, alcohol abuse.
Activation of the virus causes it to accumulate in large quantities in a specific area of the body or on the mucous membranes and alters the structure and function of the cells present here. The result of this process is the appearance of warts and papillomas.
Particularly dangerous are genital warts that appear on the external genitalia and in women inside the vagina. Skin growths can be both single and multiple, often being injured, which increases the risk of degenerating normal cells into non-normal cells.
How and why is there a diagnosis of human papillomavirus?
When papillomas appear on the human body, a dermatologist can safely say that a virus is present in this patient's body.
But for the most effective treatment, a laboratory analysis is needed to determine the type of virus and its amount in the body.
It is necessary to determine the HPV strain if papillomatous growth is detected:
- On the external genitalia, in women in the vagina and in men on the penis and urethra.
- In the throat and mouth area.
- around the anus.
Diagnosis in this case allows you to determine if the virus belongs to the carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic group.
This allows the doctor to predict the outcome of the disease and prescribe treatment that prevents the possibility of malignancy. Diagnosis of human papillomavirus is necessary and if pre-cancer is diagnosed, it is dysplasia or cervical leukemia in women.
A papillomavirus diagnosis is recommended for every woman after 30 years. It should preferably be taken once every three to five years. Such an attitude towards human health will enable one to identify the evolution of unconventional cells in the early stages of their appearance.
Various diagnostic methods have been developed to determine HPV in the human body. The patient receives blood for diagnosis, scraping and stroking in women from the cervix and cervix. In men, cells from the mucous membrane of the urethra need the secretions of the prostate gland for analysis.
Before taking the diagnosis, it is recommended to follow a few rules. Male patients should not urinate for one and a half hours. A woman who was hygienic the night before should not rinse and use bactericidal cleansers.
If necessary, if HPV is suspected, a biopsy is performed. That is, a small piece of tissue is taken from the area of the cell.
Modern medical centers have several methods for detecting HPV in the human body. The most commonly used are the following:
- PCR - polymerase chain reaction. This method is based on the discovery of human papillomavirus DNA, which makes it possible to detect this micro-organism with the highest probability. The study requires biological fluids - blood, saliva, urine, amniotic fluid or scraping of the mucous membrane of the cervix or urethra. DNA analysis also helps to determine the type of micro-organism and its volume ratio at sampling.
- The Digin test is a modern, highly sensitive diagnosis that allows you to link a virus to one of a hundred strains and determine its carcinogenic effects. To diagnose papilloma, it is necessary to scrape the vagina or urethra. Interpretation of the results obtained is performed by a physician. The Digin test allows you to detect the strength of the virus, which indicates a high risk of degeneration of the transformed cells into cancer cells. Therefore, this study is necessary to prescribe the most effective preventive treatment.
If the results are positive or if the results are questionable, another diagnosis is prescribed. It allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and determine exactly whether an individual is infected with HPV.
But even with negative results, anyone should be checked, if possible, regularly, as it can be transmitted by the virus at any time.
Characteristics of the survey in women
Diagnosis of papillomavirus in women has its own characteristics. The most interesting is qualitatively taken scrapes from the area of visible changes and from the cervix.
The material is obtained with a special brush, at the same time a smear is applied to cytology. In some cases, a comprehensive medical examination can be used for sampling. The substance should not be taken during menstruation, as it will show unreliable results.
Only gynecologists are assigned to cytology patients who have not reached the age of thirty. The detection of HPV before the age of 30 is not informative - it is thought that infection in young people is secretly requested.
After 30 years, cytology is prescribed along with tests for papillomavirus. At this time, it is important not to miss the moment that indicates the degeneration of normal cells in the cancer cells.
The role of genotyping?
Genotyping is a laboratory decision on the type of virus. Such a study has several advantages, these are:
- Simultaneous detection of several virus strains.
- Determination of the level of HPV carcinogenicity. Cervical cancer is thought to occur if a woman has HPV types 16 and 18.
- The possibility of recognizing a re-infection from a persistent (chronic) infection during repeated tests.
Identifying carcinogenic strains allows your doctor to choose a treatment plan that will provide maximum antiviral effects to the body and provide preventive prevention against the development of cancer.
Genotypic reconstruction shows the success of treatment as re-infection with the same strain is not possible.
Prices for exams
The cost of testing for the presence of human papillomavirus in the body depends on the intended examination.
Conventional PCR analysis at most clinics is inexpensive. The same method of determining several types of viruses and their quantitative presence in the body is already more expensive. Highest cost of the Dijin exam.