human papillomavirus

human papillomavirus molecule

Papillomavirus infection (human papillomavirus, papillomavirus) is a carcinogenic disease that manifests itself in the form of papillary images (warts, warts) on human skin or genitals. Both men and women are almost equally susceptible to the virus.

Interestingly, this type of infection can indicate the development of a malignant tumor. Today, more than 100 species of this virus are known in medicine. About 30 of them only affect the female genitalia.

The World Health Organization has studied the so-called so-called human papillomavirus HPV and found that more than 60% of the world's population is infected with it. In addition, some of them are only carriers, while in others it manifests itself in the form of papillomatosis of the skin, mucous membranes, but in some cases papillomavirus causes cell degeneration and cancer.

Cause

About 60% of the world's population is a potential carrier of human papillomavirus infection. In most cases, the virus is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person. In addition, the provocative elements are the following:

  • the beginning of sex at a young age;
  • unprotected sex, frequent exchanges of sexual partners;
  • chronic genital inflammation, infectious diseases of the genitals;
  • frequent abortions;
  • weak immunity;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • do not follow the rules of personal hygiene.

As medicine shows, women are at the highest risk. The risk of "getting" such a disease is quite high in people aged 20-45, that is, those who live an active sex life.

General symptoms

The symptoms of this type of infection depend on what exactly was the provocative factor. The disease does not have a single clinical picture. However, the following symptoms can be identified:

  • wart formation;
  • genital skin irritation;
  • discomfort during intercourse;
  • redness and itching in part.

At the same time it should be noted that symptoms in the form of skin irritation and itching may indicate another disease. Therefore, self-treatment is not worth it in all cases. With such symptoms, it is better to contact a dermatologist immediately.

Warts usually appear in the following places:

  • on the skin of the palms, soles;
  • on the genitals;
  • in the oral cavity.

In more severe cases, this type of infection can develop in the cervix, bladder and vagina. The only way to get rid of warts is through surgery. Papillomavirus infection in women can lead to cervical cancer. As for men, the carcinogenic factor is seen much less frequently.

It is also noteworthy that in the early stages of development, a disease of this type gives almost no symptoms. This is what often leads to a carcinogenic risk factor for infection.

Pathogenesis

Infection with the virus is only possible if a healthy person has a genital injury. In this case, the papillomavirus enters a healthy person's body and begins to develop.

The gestation period of a carcinogenic virus can last from several months to several years, without showing any symptoms. In other words, a person who is already infected can be a carrier and not be known about it.

HPV in women

As previously mentioned, women aged 20-45 are most susceptible to the virus. But here it is worth pointing out the fact that in the main risk group are those who often change sexual partners and have unprotected sex.

This type of infection in women is divided into the following groups:

  • major carcinogenic effects;
  • low carcinogenicity;
  • a non-carcinogenic type.

The most dangerous thing for women's health is an infection with a large type of carcinogenic effect. Almost always, it leads to cancer - malignant tumors, cervical cancer. The risk of such a pathological development is 90%. The condition is exacerbated by the fact that in the early stages of development the disease shows no symptoms. Occasionally, small warts may appear on the palms and soles of the feet.

With a type of infection with a high carcinogenic effect, warts form. These are formations similar to warts, but with sharp edges. Such formations can appear in the vagina, anus, in the perineum. Sometimes warts can be in the form of bubbles with liquid, which eventually burst and give off an unpleasant odor.

A high type of HPV infection can also cause vaginal and vaginal cancer. In rarer clinical cases, nasopharyngeal cancer is possible. It should be noted that it is almost impossible to cure a high level of HPV carcinogen completely.

papilloma virus in men

Papillomavirus infection in men can occur without any symptoms. It should be noted that in the main risk group, men who often change partners have unprotected sex.

Pathological formations are localized at such sites:

  • on the head and shaft of the penis;
  • on the skin of the scrotum;
  • in the perineum;
  • on the mucous membrane.

Such formations can be classified. As a rule, they do not cause itching and other unpleasant feelings. Very rarely, they may be accompanied by itching or burning only during intercourse.

Viruses of this type in men can be in the form of a strong carcinogenic effect. This leads to genital cancer. But if you start treatment on time, the risk of carcinogenic diseases is minimal. Warts caused by the HPV virus are removed surgically or with special chemical solutions. Antiviral drugs are prescribed along the way. Therefore, in the early stages of development of this type of disorder in men, it can be completely eliminated.

human papillomavirus in women and men

Analysis

Diagnosis of HPV infection consists of several stages. Initially, a doctor's examination and anamnesis are explained. If the disease is suspected in women, a gynecologist should perform a general examination. After that you can prescribe the following exams:

  • vaginal scraping;
  • vaginal tissue biopsy;
  • PCR analysis.

The latter makes it possible not only to confirm the diagnosis accurately, but also to determine the cause of the development of the pathological process, its form of development. If there is a risk of developing cancer, a general and biochemical blood test, a device test method, is also prescribed.

Colonoscopy is mandatory if HPV infection is suspected. This is an examination of the cervix, to detect profound pathological changes.

For men, the analysis has roughly the same picture. After an examination by a urologist or surgeon, there is a referral for a test.

Only according to the results of the diagnosis can the competent doctor prescribe the correct treatment. The sooner the disease is diagnosed, the lower the risk of complications.

Treatment

At present, there is no medicine in medicine that can systematically destroy the HPV virus. Therefore, the treatment is complex. Not only is the form of the disease taken into account but also the cause of its onset. It should also be noted that a person who has been or is sick with the HPV virus should have a regular check-up by a local doctor. The papilloma virus can only be cured completely in the early stages. In all cases, there is always a risk of cancer or malignancy. It is easier to avoid the virus than to get rid of it.

Treatment of papillomavirus infection can be conditionally divided into the following stages:

  • remove warts or warts;
  • chemotherapy to prevent synthesis;
  • treatment aimed at strengthening the immune system.

It should be taken into account that such a treatment plan only applies if there is no risk of developing malignancies or sexually transmitted infections. If the latter is confirmed, the treatment plan includes drugs to eradicate the underlying disease. Antiviral drugs are used in all cases. In most cases, broad-spectrum drugs are prescribed. However, the use of such drugs does not preclude the recurrence of the disease.

It is much more difficult to cure the HPV virus if it has become chronic and has a high carcinogenicity. In this case, additional tests are prescribed and chemotherapy is used.

Treatment of human papillomavirus is only possible by a qualified specialist. Self-treatment is unacceptable here, as the HPV virus is recognized as a carcinogen. Therefore, in most cases, it is rather difficult to cure. Even surgery on genital warts or warts does not preclude their regeneration.

How to treat papillomavirus properly, only an expert can tell. Using folk remedies to cure HPV is not enough. Therefore, if symptoms of the disease are found, you should seek appropriate medical attention immediately.

Prevention

One of the most effective preventive measures is vaccination against the virus. This makes it possible to prevent the development in the body of not only HPV infection but also cervical cancer. In addition, the following rules should be followed:

  • only protected sex;
  • strengthen the immune system;
  • regular check-ups by a gynecologist or urologist;
  • personal hygiene.

You need to keep a close eye on your health, do not abuse alcohol, smoking. In the case of intimate life, if possible, frequent sexual intercourse should be ruled out. With symptoms, you should contact your doctor immediately and not take self-medication.